La méthode des staffs d'experts de communautés Orientation théorique, démarche méthodologique et application pratique
The expert community staff method. Theoretical orientation, methodological approach, and a pratical application
Ce papier présente les lignes directrices pour la conduite d'analyses des besoins basée sur une approche constructiviste, qui consiste en des réunions d'experts d'une communauté d'utilisateurs ciblés.
The aim of this paper is to present guidelines for conducting a type of user requirements analysis based on a constructivist approach. This method consists of meetings of experts of a targeted user community called: the Expert Community Staff. First, we present the theories involved in this approach that is both based on social construction of technology and on methods related to the social construction of the user's needs. In the second part of the paper, we present our method for the elaboration of a representation of the users' needs. Our general approach to the process of collecting users' needs based on a socio-constructivist approach is the following: (a) Definition of communities of practice in order to decide which social groups are relevant to express users' needs and to gather as much information as possible on people who may be affected by the project and to determine a profile of users of the digital library (DL); (b) Identification of the experts of the communities (i.e., Who are the experts in this community? Who can speak for this community?); (c) The conduct of 14 focus-groups to obtain verbalizations about their needs and expectations; (d) Results analysis; (e) Consensus conferences in order to discuss controversial issues and share recommendations. In the third part, we present a case study which consists in the redefinition of a digital library and present the results which consist in 134 ideations on the future of the DL (content, improvements, status, information organization...)
Éric BRANGIER, Jérome DINET, J.M.C BASTIEN
méthode participative, approche constructiviste des besoins de l'utilisateur, design socioconstructiviste, analyse de l'utilisateur et de ses besoins.
participatory method, constructivist approach of user needs, socio-constructivist design, user requirements.